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ساختار موازی در زبان انگلیسی Parallel structure
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در این ساختار بسیاری از جملات اطلاعاتی را در قالب سری ها یا لیست هایی بیان می کنند. سری ها می توانند دو, سه یا قسمت های بیشتری داشته باشند که همگی از ساختار گرامری یکسانی پیروی می کنند. این موضوع به عنوان ساختار موازی شناخته می شود.
انواع ساختارهای موازی در ادامه همراه با مثال بیان شده است:
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1) سری های شامل اسمها, صفتها, قیدها یا عبارات:

اسمها:
Vitamin C is destroyed by heat or exposure to air.
.ویتامین سی توسط گرما یا در معرض هوا قرار گرفتن از بین می رود
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صفتها:
His answer to the question was inaccurate and irrational.
پاسخ او به سوال, غیرصحیح و نامربوط بود.
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قیدها:
Vitamin supplements can be prepared naturally and synthetically.
ذخایر ویتامینها می توانند به صورت طبیعی یا مصنوعی آماده شوند.
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عبارات:
Large amounts of vitamin C can be bought in the form of crystals, or in the form of granules.
مقادیر زیادی از ویتامین سی می توانند در قالب کریستال یا کپسول خریداری شود.
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2) اسم فعل (فعل ing دار) یا اسم مصدر:
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اسم فعل (فعل ing دار):
Claims for vitamin C such as reducing stress and improving athletic performances have not been scientifically demonstrated.
ادعاهایی نظیر اینکه ویتامین سی استرس را کاهش می دهد و عملکرد ورزشی را بهبود می بخشد, به صورت علمی نشان داده نشده اند.
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اسم مصدر:
When people get scurvy their cells tend to disintegrate and to fall apart.
وقتی مردم مبتلا به کمبود ویتامین سی (آسکوربیک) می شوند, سولهای آنها تمایل به متلاشی و از هم جدا شدن می کنند.
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3) پیوستگی لازم (correlative conjunction):

both ... and               neither ... nor             either ... or             not only ... but also
Both fruits and vegetables are rich sources of vitamin C.
هر دوی میوه ها و سبزیجات منابع غنی ویتامین سی هستند.


Compare the following examples:

  • Lacking parallelism: "She likes cooking, jogging, and to read."
  • Lacking parallelism: "He likes to swim and running."
  • Parallel: "She likes cooking, jogging, and reading."
  • Parallel: "She likes to cook, jog, and read."
  • Parallel: "He likes to swim and to run."
  • Parallel: "He likes swimming and running."

In the above example, the first sentence has two gerunds and one infinitive. To make it parallel, the sentence can be rewritten with three gerunds or three infinitives.

  • Lacking parallelism: "The dog ran across the yard, jumped over the fence, and down the alley he sprinted."
  • Parallel: "The dog ran across the yard, jumped over the fence, and sprinted down the alley."

Note that the first nonparallel example, while inelegantly worded, is grammatically correct: "cooking," "jogging," and "to read" are all grammatically valid conclusions to "She likes." The third nonparallel example is not grammatically correct: "down the alley he sprinted" is not a grammatically valid conclusion to "The dog."


Lesson Topic: Using Parallel Structure And Avoiding The Repetition of Words in Writing.

Is there anything wrong with the following sentence?

Martin felt the movie was boring, silly, and was too long.

Yes, there is something wrong.  Did you find the problem?  Well, if you didn't find the problem, keep reading, and we'll tell you later.  

Did you ever pick up a book and read something like this:

Carol picked up her books.
Carol picked up her pens.
Carol picked up her jacket.

Hopefully, you haven't seen too much of this type of writing.  Although there are some situations where this form of writing is necessary (maybe for emphasis), it is usually not necessary to repeat words over and over again.  We can write the above sentences like this:

Carol picked up her books, pens, and jacket.

Taking out repetitive words and combining similar sentences and ideas is called parallel structure,parallel construction, and parallelism.   In parallel structure, it is important to group similar ideas and items together.  For example, in the three sentences above, the words Carol picked up her...repeat.  Additionally, the words that do NOT repeat are all nouns: books, pens, and jacket.  Sincebooks, pens, and jacket are all nouns, they can be grouped together.  Thus, we can correctly write the following:

Carol picked up her books, pens, and jacket.

Notice that the commas are placed after each noun in the list except the last one.  For more information about commas, please see our previous lesson about commas.  

When using parallel structure, the main rule to remember is that the things in the list must be the same grammatical form.  This is best summed up in the following:

The items in the list must be all nouns, all infinitives,all prepositional phrases, all gerunds, or all clauses.   

 

 

Take a look at this sentence:

Paula went to work, a restaurant, and to the movies.

If the preposition or article (a, an, the) is the same for all items in the list, the writer can decide to include them in all of the items or write it just in the first.  Therefore, the above sentence is incorrect.   The items in the list are work, a restaurant, and the movies.  However, the writer used the preposition to with the first and third items only.   

INCORRECT Paula went to work, a restaurant, and to the movies.
CORRECT Paula went to work, a restaurant, and the movies.
CORRECT

Paula went to work, to a restaurant, and to the movies.

Here is another example:

There are trains leaving the station in the morning and noon.

The preposition is in.  When proofreading, ask yourself, "Is this the correct word for each item?"

In the morning?  YES!
In noon?  NO!

The correct preposition for noon is at.  Therefore, we must write

There are trains leaving the station in the morning and at noon.

Some words and verbs use prepositions as well.   Look at this example:

The cancer researcher is interested and excited about the new advances in medical technology.

What are the words in the parallel structure?  They are interested and excited.  When the writer wroteexcited, she also correctly wrote about.  How about interested?  Do you use about with interested?  Let's do the proofreading test that we learned above.

excited about the advances...?  YES!
interested about the advances...?  NO!

The correct preposition used with interested is in.  Therefore, the above sentence is INCORRECT.   The correct preposition must be used in each item of the parallel structure.  The following is correct:

The cancer researcher is interested in and excited about the new advances in medical technology.

There are a number of situations which require you to use parallel structure.  They are

Both X and Y . . .
Not X but Y
Not only X but also Y . . .
Neither X nor Y . . .
Either X or Y . . . 

Remember the rule of parallel structure: the words in the list must be the same grammatical form.  In this situation, the X and Y must be the same grammatical form.  Many common problems with parallel structure can be easily corrected.  Look at the chart of examples below.

INCORRECT CORRECT
In counseling, I think both talkingand to listen are important In counseling, I think both talkingand listening are important.
We are not for war but peace We are not for war but for peace.
This car is not only fast but also it is safe to drive. This car is not only fast but alsosafe.
The trip to the city is neither a long one nor expensive. The trip to the city is neither long norexpensive.
Either you must stay home or go with us. You must either stay home or go with us.

When using the above constructions, the X and Y must be the same grammatical forms:  both nouns, both infinitives, both prepositional phrases, both gerunds, or both clauses.

So what's the problem with the first sentence in this lesson?

Martin felt the movie was boring, silly, and was too long.

The words in the list of items are not the same: boring and silly are adjectives; however, was too long begins with a verb.